This is the Urban Shooter WIKI.
After I learn how to do it better, or enlist of the help of Urban Shooter supporters that have the know how— I expect this to work/look a whole lot better.
Until then, “Don’t Tase Me, Bro; this is just one brothers attempt at a WIKI.
ACCURIZE To modify, rework, and refine a weapon to improve the characteristics of the designed function and accuracy capabilities.
ACP Automatic Colt Pistol cartridge.
ACTION The part to which the barrel is attached. In a rifle it is often called the receiver. Shotgun or double-barreled sections house all the mechanisms or working parts. The term may be further modified as side action, breech-action, belt-action, snap-section, etc. It is also used to indicate the different forms of charging the weapon as bolt-action, lever-action, pump action, etc.
ADJUSTABLE TRIGGER One that can be adjusted for weight of pull. Aperture sight front of a rear sight, primarily for a rifle, with a circular opening in the center. Interchangeable discs with holes of varying diameters may be inserted to control the sight picture according to shooting conditions.
AUTO LOADING A type of arm in which the force of the explosion of the first shot is used to unlock the mechanism, extract or eject the empty shell, and to reload by stripping and feeding another cartridge from the magazine into the chamber. The trigger must be pressed for each successive shot.
AUTOMATIC WEAPON a firearm in which the force of the explosion of the first shot is used to continue the operation of unlocking, extraction, ejection, reloading, locking, and firing continuously, as long as the ammunition lasts in the magazine, belt, or strip, the pressure on the trigger is continued. The name is commonly applied erroneously to auto loading, repeating hand firearms. I.E., One pull of the trigger initiates the entire emptying of the magazine.
BACK STRAP The rear extension of a pistol or revolver frame that curves downward between the grips.
BALL Round lead ball used as a bullet in most muzzle loading rifles
BALL SCREW Used in muzzle loading, this looks like a wood screw. It threads into the end of the ramrod. It can be twisted into the soft lead ball when it is inside the barrel. Then the ball can be pulled backwards to unload the rifle when it has been fired.
B.A.R. Abbreviation for Browning Automatic Rifle, a gas-operated
military weapon invented by John M. Browning (1855-1926).
BARREL Metal tube containing the chamber and bore of a firearm.
BARREL LENGTH The distance between the muzzle and the rear face, breech, of the barrel where it abuts the breech bold or bolt, thus including the chamber. Revolver barrel lengths do not include the chamber, their chambers being in the cylinder. The design of a barrel length takes into account the burning rate of the propellant powder to be used and the projectile to be fired.
BARREL LUG A projection integral with the barrel used to secure the magazine, forearm, or some moveable part to the barrel.
BEAD A small snob of metal on a firearm near the muzzle used for a front sight in aiming.
BENCH REST A specially constructed shooting bench at which the shooter sits to support his elbow and the gun barrel. Benchrest shooting is concerned with firing groups as small as possible at a target over measured distances and with any type of rifle and cartridge best adapted for super accurate performance.
BIATHLON An event combining a cross-country race on skis and firing a rifle at various distances. This was even included in the 1960 Olympic Winter Games.
BINOCULAR VISION Sighting with both eyes open.
BIPOD A two-legged stand or mount; i.e., a stand for a spotting scope or the mount for a mortar or an automatic weapon.
BLOW BACK (1) Escape, to the rear and under pressure, of gases formed during the firing of the gun. May be caused by a defective breech mechanism, a ruptured cartridge, case, or a faulty primer. (2) Type of weapon operation in which the force of expanding gases acting to the rear against the face of the bolt furnishes all the energy required to initiate the complete cycle of operations of the gun. A weapon, which employs this method of operation, is characterized by the absence of any breech lock or bolt lock mechanism.
BLOW FORWARD A type of automatic action in which the barrel is blown forward then returns against the standing breech by spring pull, reloading and taking place during the return movement.
BLUING Purposely rusting metal by artificial oxidation to form a protective coating.
BOLT A sliding mechanism that closes the breech in some types of extractors and firing pins and supports the base of the cartridge case.
BOLT ACTION A rifle and shotgun mechanism whereby the breech is opened and closed by a manually operated bolt which travels back and forth in the receiver in a direct line with chamber and barrel. 1. Turning bolt—locking lugs turned to lock the action. 2. Straight pull—locking lugs actuated by bolt studs, which slide in grooves cut into the bolt cylinder.
BOLT FACE That portion of the bolt that engages and supports the head of the cartridge.
BORE (1) The interior of the barrel through which the charge or bullet passes. (2) The diameter measured from land to land.
BREECH The rear end of the barrel into which the cartridge is inserted Breech plug Plug that screws into the rear end of a muzzle-loader’s barrel. It seals the back end of the barrel.
BUCKSHOT Large size lead balls (shot) for use in shotgun shells. Commercially manufactured in five sizes with the following designations and diameters: No. 00(.33”); No. 0(.32”); No.1 (.30”) and (.25”); No. 4(.24”).
BULLET GAUGE Gauges normally used to measure the diameter and concentricity of a bullet.
BUTT The shoulder end of a gun stock; the bottom of a revolver or pistol grip. Loosely used to indicate the complete butt stock of rifles and shotguns or the grip of a handgun.
BUTT PLATE A metal, plastic, or rubber covering for the rear edges of a gunstock; usually corrugated to prevent slipping from the shoulder. On some rifles, butt plates are usually adjustable for vertical movement and may have extension prongs, which
fit under and/or over the shoulder.
CALIBER Bore diameter of a rifle or handgun measured from one land to the opposite land, or the diameter before rifling, designated in fractions of an inch or millimeters, although a stated caliber may not be an exact figure. Black powder calibers, such as .45-70-405, means .45″”diameter, 70 as the weight of the powder charge, and 405 as the weight of the bullet in grams; many of these old designations were incorporated into modern smokeless powder nomenclature, but the second figure is meaningless. Designations such as .250-3000 refer to caliber and muzzle velocity; 8 mm. X 56 refers to caliber and length in millimeters.
CAM A rotating or sliding projection that either imparts to or receives a motion from a counteracting part, such as roller, pin, etc. Thus, a camming action.
CENTIMETER 1/100 of a meter, or 0.3937 inch.
CHAMBER The compartment at the rear of a gun barrel that holds a charge or cartridge one of the compartments in the cylinder of a revolver. Also the action of inserting a round of ammunition in the chamber or a firearm.
CHAMFER To bevel. Chamfering a cartridge case means beveling the inside of it’s by cutting or rolling the edge.
CHARGER Any container used in muzzle end of a shotgun barrel that controls the shot pattern; the difference between bore and parallel diameters, expressed in thousandths of an inch, or points. The wider the pattern desired, the less the amount of choke required. Degree of choke is measured by approximate percentage of pellets striking within a 30” circle at forty yards.
CHOKE Constriction at the muzzle end of a shotgun barrel which controls the shot pattern; the difference between bore and parallel diameters, expressed in thousandths of an inch, or points. The wider the pattern desired, the less the amount of choke required. Degree of choke is measured by approximate percentage of pellets striking within a 30” circle at forty yards.
CHRONOGRAPH An electric or electronic device for recording a projectile’s time of flight from which velocities are computed.
CLIP (Most misused term in the shooting world-authors note). 1. Cartridge clip—open top and bottom metal container for cartridges that is pressed into the magazine well. Cartridges are fed from it into the chamber by the loading mechanism; automatic ejection of the clip follows feeding of the last cartridge. 2. Mannlicher clip—Mauser-type clip or charger is a metal band which holds the cartridge for stripping into the magazine from the top by manual pressure. This type of clip does not remain in the magazine but is either removed before firing or ejected by the closing of the bolt.
COCK (the verb not the noun) To draw the hammer or cocking piece back into firing position either manually or by pressure on the trigger; also, to top set the trigger for firing. In a half cock position, the hammer or cocking piece is partially retraced but mechanically prevented from contacting the firing pin.
COMPENSATOR A device used on the barrel of a weapon to reduce recoil.
CROSS BOLT A movable, locking bar at right angles to the bore, which either locks or strengthens the locking mechanism of a closed breech, usually that of a break-type shot-gun. Some bolt action guns may use a cross bolt to lock the bolt in an open position.
CYCLE RATE The rate, at which a succession of movement repeats itself, applied to rate of fire of an automatic weapon.
CYLINDER (1.) True diameter of the bore of a shotgun barrel, hence without any degree of choke. Delivers a 25% to 35% shot charge pattern. See choke. 2. A round steel block, the inside of which is bored with multiple chambers for cartridges. Used as the loading device for revolvers; formerly in some types of rifles—notable Colt.
DECIBEL A unit of measure used in evaluation sound levels. Measurement is made by a sound level meter. Example: sound in a quiet business office is about forty decibels; average street traffic one hundred feet away is from sixty to seventy decibels; a gunshot registers about one hundred decibels; and a boiler shop is about one hundred and thirty decibels, just below the limit of endurance of the human ear.
DOUBLE ACTION That type of firing action whereby a single pull of the trigger both cocks and fires the weapon. It is employed in revolvers and old types of rifles and shotguns. It contrasts with single action, which requires the hammer to be cocked by hand prior to firing by pulling the trigger. See single action.
DRY FIRE Practice with an unloaded weapon.
EJECTION The process of where a case or cartridge is thrown from the weapon by ejector.
EXTRACTION The process of removing a live or spent shell or cartridge case from the chamber.
EXTRACTOR A part in a gun for removing shells or cartridges from the chamber.
FEEDING The process of driving live cartridges from the magazine into the path of the bolt or slide prior to chambering.
FEED RAMP A slanted metal surface at the rear of a barrel that guides cartridges into the chamber during feeding.
FEET PER SECOND (FPS) A unit of measure usually used to indicate the velocity of a bullet.
FIRING PIN A rod or plunger in a gun, mine, bomb, or shell that strikes and detonates a sensitive explosive to fire the main explosive or propelling charge.
FLASHHOLE Used in muzzle loading, this is very small hole that is open from the priming flash pan to the powder inside the barrel. Flame runs through this hole to set to the black powder.
FOOT POUNDS (FT/LBS.) A measurement of energy.
GRAPHITE A soft form of carbon used as a lubricant and a glaze for grains of to prevent the buildup of static electricity and the attendant danger of premature explosion. Also used as a flash inhibitor.
GRIP ADAPTER A simple hard rubber, plastic, or sometimes metal filler piece that fits on a revolver between the rear of the trigger guard and the front of the grip frame provide better support for the hand.
GRIP SAFETY A separate mechanical safety, spring loaded and protruding from the grip or stock, usually found in a auto-loading handgun but occasionally on sub-machine and machine guns, rarely on revolvers. When at rest, a grip safety prevents firing by trigger movement, but allows firing when depressed. It is located and constructed so that is easily depressed without conscious effort when there is a normal firing grip.
GUN A mechanical device consisting essentially of a barrel, receiver, and breech mechanism, using controlled explosives to shoot projectiles or signal flares.
HAIR TRIGGER A trigger requiring only a light touch for firing.
HALF COCK (not a small chicken) the position of the hammer of a gun when it is held by a notch in advance of the full cock position. In this position the trigger is locked, and the gun is relatively safe.
HAMMER The mechanism that strikes the firing pin or percussion cap in a firearm.
HANDGUN A firearm capable of being carried and uses by one hand, such as a pistol or revolver.
HAND (PISTOL) The operating level which turns the cylinder when the hammer is pulled back on the receiver.
HANDBALL A colloquial term used to describe service issue ball ammunition; usually used to describe cartridge, ball, .45 caliber.
HANG FIRE A shot that does not fire immediately after the trigger is pulled. It does fire after a short delay. It is very dangerous. Always keep the rifle pointed in a safe direction.
HEAVY SLIDE Addition of weight to a slide to reduce recoil while firing.
HOLLOW POINT A projectile with a cavity within its point; may or may not have controlled expansion.
HOUSING A covering a frame to protect integral parts of a firearm: i.e., a mainspring housing or trigger housing.
IMMEDIATE ACTION The action a person performs when a stop-page has occurred in a weapon to put the weapon back into operation with little or no loss of time.
INFRARED LIGHT Invisible light radiation of frequencies ranging beyond those of visible red. Used in firearm identification to photograph powder combustion deposits on skin and clothing not otherwise detectable.
INSIDE LUBRICATED A bullet that is lubricated before loading. Also, a bullet that contains lubricant grooves that is not visible in the finished cartridge.
JACKET The metal covering of a bullet.
JAG This screws into the end of the ramrod. It is used with a patch to clean the barrel.
JERK The effort by the shooter to fire a pistol or rifle at the precise time the sights align with the target, usually causing a bad hit on the target.
KNURL To checker or roughen a metal surface to afford a better grip used on pistol grips, windage screws, elevation screws, etc.
LEVER A moving handle, the working of which locks or unlocks the action in guns or double rifles. There are several forms, such as top-lever, side-lever, under-lever, etc.
LEVER ACTION A rifle whose action is operated by a lever under the stock. The lever usually serves as a trigger guard, as well as an
LINE OF SIGHT The straight line along which sight is taken between an observer’s eye and a target or other observed object or spot; specifically, the straight line between eye and target in gunnery, bombing, or rocket firing.
LOCKING LUGS Extension on a locking mechanism that locks the breech. Metal protuberances which form an integral part of a breech block and fit into a corresponding set of slots when the breech is closed, thus locking the gun for firing.
MAGAZINE Term mistakenly referred to as a clip. (1) Structure or compartment for storing ammunition or explosives. (2) That part of a gun or firearm that holds ammunition ready for chambering. Note: In sense the latter definition, magazines for small arms may be detachable or non-detachable from the rest of the piece. A box magazine is a detachable magazine in the shape of a rectangular box.
MAGNUM a marketing term used to denote a weapon of more than normal power, not necessarily true.
MAKE THE LINE SAFE Command given to cause shooters to make weapons safe, ground them, and to step back away from the firing line.
MATCH CONDITIONED WEAPON Any small arm which has been made to shoot more accurately than issued or made specifically for the use in competition. Match grade Special weapons, ammunition, or equipment manufactured for use in competitive matches.
MATCH GRADE AMMUNITION Ammunition made specifically for use in competition shooting.
MATCH PISTOL A pistol manufactured or modified to special tolerances for competitive shooting.
MAXIMUM RANGE A capability of an aircraft, gun, radar transmitter, or the like that expresses the most distant point to which the aircraft can
fly, the gun can shoot, etc.
MICRO SIGHTS A commercial rear sight, adjustable for windage and elevation that can be used on almost all pistols.
MISFIRE A momentary or permanent failure of a round of ammunition to fire igniting action is taken; an instance of such failure.
MUG– a Kennism, a person, a face, i.e., He was a happy mug.
National Rifle Association (NRA) A non-profit organization supported by the membership of millions of individual members.
NOMENCLATURE -A set or system of names or symbols given to items of supply and equipment, to organizations, or to other variously identifiable things as a means of classification and identification.
OPEN SIGHT A rear gun sight having a notch. Note: Distinguished especially from a peep sight.
OVER AND UNDER A gun or rifle in which the barrels are placed vertically, one over the other.
PARKERIZE To give a dull, relatively rough finish to a firearm by use of powered iron and phosphoric acid. Hence Parkerization.
PATCHING Cloth placed around the round lead ball when shooting a muzzleloader. It usually is cotton or linen. It makes the round ball fit tightly into the barrel of the gun.
PEEP SIGHT A rear gun sight having a small hole in which the front sight is centered in aiming. Distinguished from an open sight.
PISTOL (1) In popular usage, a firearm, usually short and barreled designed to be held and fired in one hand. (2) More precisely, such a firearm in which the chamber is an integral part of the barrel, especially a self-loading pistol, as distinguished from a revolver. (3) A machine pistol is usually a short-barreled weapon firing pistol ammunition in the fully automatic mode.
PISTOL GRIP A gunstock, the grip of which turns downward, as does a pistol.
PROJECTILE An object, especially a missile, projected by an applied exterior force and continuing in motion by virtue of its own inertia, as a bullet.
PROOF MARK A stamp used by gun manufacturers to identify all weapons having met the standard prescribed pressure test they consider safe. Usually found on the barrel and/or under receiver, depending on the manufacturer.
PSI (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH) A unit of measure used to evaluate the pressure in a chamber or cylinder.
RAMP An inclined plane designed to give proper elevation to front or rear sights.
READY POSITION The position in which a weapon is held just before aiming.
RECEIVER The basic unit of firearm, especially a small arm, to which the barrel and other components are attached.
RECOIL The backward movement of a gun or part thereof on firing, caused by the backward pressure of the propellant gases the distance that a gun or part travels in this backward movement.
REVOLVER A handgun having a rotating cylinder carrying several rounds of ammunition, each round being in a chamber that comes into line with the barrel before the round is fired.
RICOCHET Of a bullet, or the like. To skip, bounce, or fly off at an angle after striking an object or surface.
RIFLED SLUG A projectile used in shotgun ammunition with spiraled grooves, the theory being that the air forced through the grooves while the projectile is in flight tends to spin the slug to effect stability.
RIFLING (1) The action of cutting spiral, longitudinal grooves in the bore of a gun barrel. (2) The spiral grooves cut in the bore of a gun barrel or cannon. Rim The outer or extreme circumference on the head of a cartridge used for head spacing, in some cases, and for extraction.
RIM FIRE A cartridge in which the priming mixture is placed in the fold of the head of the shell, as in .22 caliber rim fire cartridges.
RIMLESS A cartridge case design in which the case bears no rim about the head. The extractor, in this case, will fit into an extractor groove about the head of the case.
RIMMED CARTRIDGE A cartridge whose rim extends beyond the cartridge case to control headspace and facilitate extraction.
RUPTURED CARTRIDGE A cartridge case that is deformed with partial or complete circumferential separation around the body.
SCATTER UNIT Slang term for shotgun.
SEMIAUTOMATIC Of a firearm or gun; utilizing part of the force of an exploding cartridge to extract the empty case and chamber the next round, but requiring a separate pull on the trigger to fire each
SHALOM, BABY! a Kennism, colloquial term, for I wish you peace.
SHOOTING EYE Refers to the dominant eye, the one used by a shooter to align his sights. The dominate eye may be identified by holding a finger at arm’s length and, with both eyes open, lining it up with a distant object. If the finger remains stationery when one eye is closed, it is the open eye that is dominant and should be used to sight a firearm.
SHOOTING GLOVE A special glove used by rifle shooters to protect the hand that is placed between the fore-end and the sling
SHOT (1) Terminology applied to a fired around. (2) A component used in the manufacture of shot shells.
SHOULDER HUNCH Similar to flinch. A reaction of the shoulder jacket to protect the shoulder.
SIDE BY SIDE A weapon with two barrels placed next to each other.
SIGHT ALIGNMENT When the front and rear sights are brought into correct adjustment with the eye.
SIGHT PICTURE Upon achieving proper sight alignment, a sight picture is obtained by adding the aiming area.
SILENCER A device for slowing down the escape of gases at the muzzle of a gun which results in the reduction of the sound of the report. It also acts as a muzzle break and decreases the recoil of the gun. Hiram Percy Maxim developed the first successful firearm silencer in 1909. Production by Maim Silencer Company was discontinued in 1925 for lack of business. The National Firearms Act specifically includes silencers within the scope of its applications to the making and transfer of certain firearms.
SINGLE ACTION (1) A firearm whose hammer must be cocked by hand before the weapon can be fired. (2) Type of fire made possible by cocking the hammer on a double-action revolver.
SKEET A shotgun sport in which clay targets is thrown from a high house twelve feet above the ground and low house tow feet above the ground. The shooter fires from eight different positions, which are laid out on a semicircle, with the eighth position at the center of the diameter of the semicircle. A round of skeet consists of twenty-five shots with the maximum of twenty-five points.
SLING A leather or web strap used to help support a rifle during firing.
SMALL OF STOCK A name usually applied to the hand of the butt stock. Commonly called the pistol grip.
SMALLBORE Normally refers to a .22 caliber rim fire cartridge or weapons chambered for such cartridges.
TERMINAL VELOCITY The constant velocity of a falling body attained when the resistance of air or ambient fluid has become equal to the force of gravity acting upon the body.
TRACER (1) A projectile that has a chemical compound which gives a trail of light indication the flight of the projectile. (2) The pyrotechnic composition in a bullet.
TRAJECTORY The curve on the vertical lane traced by a bullet or other object thrown, launched, or projected by an applied exterior force, the projectile continuing in motion after separation from the force.
TRAP A shotgun sport in which clay targets are thrown at a fixed height with an angle of 130 degrees. The trap house is located sixteen feet from each of the five positions from which the shooter fires five shots from each, giving a maximum score of twenty-five points.
TRIANGULATION A sighting and aiming exercise.
TRIGGER A mechanism which, when pulled with the finger, releases another mechanism, as in the trigger of a gun.
TRIGGER CONTROL The ability to move the trigger until the sear disengages, the hammer goes forward and the weapon discharges, without any movement of the weapon.
TRIGGER PULL (1) The amount of weight necessary to actuate the trigger. (2) The length of the trigger travel during actuation.
TRIGGER SHOE A device designed for widening the trigger.
TRIGGER SQUEEZE. See trigger control
TRIGGER STOP Prevents excessive rearward travel of the trigger after sear/striker release.
TWIST Not the dance made famous by a dude named Chubby. The distance in inches that a bullet travels through the barrel to make one complete revolution.
VELOCITY The speed or rate of motion in a given direction and in a given frame of reference.
VENTILATED RIB A strip of metal, usually steel, running the full length of a shotgun barrel with rectangular holes evenly spaced to help eliminate heat waves from the line of sight and produce a flat sighting plane.
WADCUTTER A term used to describe a lead bullet, which cuts cleanly through the target upon impact. Cartridges containing these bullets usually have a reduced load.